Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Film Day I: Introduction to Film Analysis & Shots and Framing

-Intro to Unit: What can we transfer from lit analysis into film analysis?
-Sample Screening "The Lunch Date"
-Watch for CLASSE (Camera movements, lighting, angles, shots/framing, sounds, and editing techniques)
-Shots and Framing Notes

-Watch a TV show or a YouTube video and explain how its use of shots and framing contribute to the meaning of the message

Monday, May 20, 2013

Gatsby as a Modern Novel

-Bell Work (elocution, pasquinade)
-District Assessment: 20th-century novels
-Review: Symbolism Worksheet + Questions
-Discussion: Gatsby as a Modern novel

-Try your hand at Great Gatsby the videogame:
-Take some initial notes on the way the film or the video game version of Gatsby compares with the book.  Try to be as detailed as possible to help you on our final assignment for this class.

Friday, May 17, 2013

Symbols of Gatsby

-Bell Work (garrulous, divot, settee, humidor, antecedent, portentous)
-Vocab Quiz
-Modernism: Breaking down "The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock"
-Symbolism: Worksheet

-Finish the novel for Monday
-Rewrite the last page of the novel using a different symbol for either the boat or the green light.  If you want to express a different tone than the one presented at the end, please make a note of it.

Thursday, May 16, 2013


-Review STEAL from Gatsby

  • Where do you get the most information about Gatsby from in your chapter?
  • Would you describe Gatsby as simply a protagonist or as an anti-hero?

-Modernism Powerpoint

  • Recording "The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock"
-Look back at Prufrock and explain in what ways it is a modernist poem
-Read chapter 8
-Vocab quiz tomorrow
-JE take-home test due tomorrow

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

Character Roles in The Great Gatsby

-Bell Work (rajah, Knickerbocker, denizen, somnabulatory)
-Review (protagonist, antihero, antagonist, foil)
-Free Write:

  • Is Nick a reliable narrator?  Why/why not?  Is he simply a minor character or does he fulfill one of the roles that we reviewed?
-Diagram of Gatsby's characterization: Review your assigned chapter of TGG for evidence of Gatsby's characterization.  Please use quotes or summarize specific plot details. 
  • S-What the character says
  • T-What the character thinks (this will be rare since the story is from Nick's pov)
  • E-Effect that he has on others...including what they say about him
  • A-Actions that he performs
  • L-How the character looks/what the character wears
After this analysis, determine from which source we receive the most information about Gatsby in your chapter.  Additionally, try to decide if Gatsby is simply a protagonist or if he is an anithero as well.  

-Complete more of your Gatsby chart (particularly if you do not think that you will finish in the first five minutes of class tomorrow)
-Read chapter 7
-Write a paragraph explaining what you believe are the two major turning points of the novel that occur in this chapter

Monday, May 13, 2013

Honors Sample Blogs

Sample Blogs to View:
-Jonathan from Richard Bach's Jonathan Livingston Seagull--
-Pamela from John Buchan's The 39 Steps
-Mrs. Twit from Roald Dahl's The Twits
-Allie from Nicholas Spark's The Notebook
-Misty from Kristopher Reisz's Unleashed
-Mashiro from Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata's Bakuman
-The Cat in the Hat from Dr. Seuss' The Cat in the Hat

Friday, May 10, 2013

Gatsby's Exposition

-Bell Work (innuendo, provincial)
-Journal: What does the poem that TGG begins with mean?  Why do you think that Fitzgerald chose it based on his background?
-Analyzing Contrasts

-Read chapters 4-6 (due Wed)
-Rewrite one page of Nick's dinner with the Buchanans from the perspective of Daisy

Monday, May 6, 2013

Intro. to The Great Gatsby

-Biographical Review of  F. Scott Fitzgerald

Part 1: :41-end
Part 2: all
Part 3: 0:00-1:24; 3:00-5:00 (more if wanted...skip this to get past the Gatsby section)

-Journal: Which 3 life events do you think had the greatest impact on Fitzgerald's writing?

-Read on in Gatsby (Chapters 4 + 5)

Friday, May 3, 2013

Jane's Journey Reviewed

-Bell work (languid, annex)
-Group Work

  • AP
    • Review of previous test
    • Overview of study plan leading up to the test
  • Honors
    • Time to finish posters (if needed)
-Presentations (this information will be helpful on the take-home test)

-All: Read Gatsby Chapters 1-3 (Mon)
  • Review Questions based on what you missed on the practices test (Mon)
  • Read Chapter 8 (Mon)
  • Read Chapter 9 + Create flashcards on terms you have trouble with 
    • any other flashcard site
    • or you can do them the old-fashioned way
  • Essay Review Sheets 
    • Remember, you need to have the details of at least two texts down for the exam.  This includes title, author, names of characters, date published, setting, major plot events, theme, etc.

Thursday, May 2, 2013

Group Work Day

-Group Work
  • AP--Practice Exam
  • Honors--Continue to work on project
-Poster Session Continued (Be prepared to present tomorrow after little in-class working time)

-All: Read through chapter 3 for Monday
-AP: Read next two chapters of AP Essay Tips
-AP: Finish next two sections of chapter 3 poetry questions if you have not already

Wednesday, May 1, 2013


-Bell Work (ebullition, diffidence, placid, kindle)
-Life as a Journey Metaphor

  • Review of Bildungsroman 
  • Discussion of Pilgrim's Progress (alluded to throughout JE)
-4-Pager Activity

The Journey of Jane
*To analyze why and how individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text
*To read closely to draw inferences
*To prepare for and to participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations

Last class we reviewed the concept of Bildungsroman, which refers to a novel of self-development.  Bildungsroman consists of four general characteristics (from handout):
1.      It is a story of a single individual’s growth and development within the context of a defined social order.
2.      The hero beings the journey because of loss or discontentment.
3.      Throughout the long process of maturity there are repeated clashes between the hero’s needs/desires and the views/judgments of a rigid society.
4.      By the end the hero begins to internalize social values.  At this point, the hero also tends to assess himself and his new place in society. 
Jane Eyre consists of five distinct sections, which can be read as building a bildungsroman.  Given the extensive Biblical and spiritual allusions throughout the text, the novel more specifically might be considered a novel of spiritual self-development. 

Analysis of Jane as (Religious) Bildungsroman Directions:
·         With a partner, review your assigned portion of the text.  You may skim and/or refer back to your reading questions.
·         Get a chart paper and some markers.  Divide one side into four squares.
o   Square One: Draw a timeline for this chapter.  Choose no less than five key events to incorporate.
o   Square Two: Answer the following questions:
§  What brings Jane to this place?  Was it loss or discontent?
§  What new conflicts does Jane experience as she clashes with the established social order here?
o   Square Three: Draw a symbolic representation of Jane given what she goes through and/or the ways in which she grows in your section (include labels). 
o   Square Four: Write a paragraph that addresses the following (you may need to continue onto the back of your chart):
§  How has Jane changed through her experiences within this section?  Does she have a new place in society?  What is it?  Does she have a new relationship with religion/spirituality?  What is it?
Grading Checklist:
·         Timeline                                                                                                              _______/5 
o   Consist of 5+ major events
o   Consist of events relevant to section
o   Is detailed enough to understand
·         Short Answers                                                                                                    _______/5
o   Addresses all four questions
o   Is relevant to section
o   Is supported by specific examples and/or plot details
·         Symbolic Drawing                                                                                             _______/5
o   Seems to represent interpretation of Jane from section
o   Contains descriptive labels
·         Long Paragraph Answer                                                                                     _______/10
o   Addresses all questions
o   Provides more than yes/no answers
o   Supports answers with more specific textual evidence relevant to length
·         Presentation                                                                                                                    _______/5 
o   Clearly presents group’s opinions on Jane Eyre as bildungsroman
o   Speaks clearly at a reasonable pace
o   Makes eye contact with the audience
o   Addresses audience questions

-Read Gatsby Chapters 1-3 by Monday
-AP: Next two poetry sections of questions (chapters 3)

Monday, April 29, 2013

The Morton Chapters

-Reading Questions
-Journal: What is the purpose of the Morton chapters?  How do they position Jane in comparison to the ideal Victorian woman?
-Group Work

  • AP: Trade + Grade
  • Honors: Blog Project
-All: Finish reading for Wednesday
  • Complete next section in prose packet (chapter 3 review packet, next poem and questions)
  • Read packet on exam essays

Thursday, April 25, 2013

Practice Test # 1

AP-Practice Test
Honors-Work on The Eyre Affair Project

-JE 32 + 33 (Fri)
-JE 34 + 35 (Mon)
-AP: Finish Practice Test 1
-Honors: Continue to work on blog project

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Groups Day + Announcments

-Bell Work (Supercilious, Meretricious)
-Announcements (AP Exam, this week, Reading Schedule)
-Reading Questions
-Byronic Heroes in JE
-Group Work

  • AP--Prose Practice

-Read chapters 30 & 31
-AP: If absent tomorrow, complete multiple choice + 1 essay
-Honors: If absent tomorrow, continue to work on your group project

Monday, April 22, 2013

Byronic Hero

-Bell Work (Lugubrious, confabulation)
-Byronic Heroes Teaser:
-Byronic Hero Characteristics Handout
-"Prometheus" Analysis:

-Complete the worksheet explaining how Rochester and another character of your choosing fit/do not fit the Byronic hero label

Friday, April 12, 2013

Madness unraveled: An analysis of its use in JE

-Bell Work (salubrious, gregarious)
-Worksheet Review: "Madness in Jane Eyre"
-AP Group

  • Review Dickens answers/questions on this section
  • Continue working on the next section of questions
  • Review assignment directions
-Honors Group
  • Set up blog domain
  • Determine which literary character you will use
  • Create a profile appropriate to your character
  • All--Read 27, 28, and 29. Answer questions that go with them.
  • Honors--Journal Question (see handout)
  • AP: Choose 1 response question to answer (45 min) and answer the 30 JE MC questions (~30-40 min)

Thursday, April 11, 2013

The Madwoman in the Attic

-Bell Work (effluvia, perfidious)

  • With what are asylums associated?
  • How are patients viewed by society (think of epithets used to describe them)?
  • How are asylums depicted in movies?
-Victorian Asylums Overview

-AP Response due tomorrow
-Next vocab quiz will be after break
-Read chapters 27-29 over break  
-Break work: TBD

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Odds and Ends Day

-Bell Work (Penurious, Truculent)
-Vocab Quiz
-Men's Fashion Presentation (thank you, Ryan)
-Victorian Pageant
-Discussion of Reading Questions

-Fri: AP Response Due

Tuesday, April 9, 2013

Group Day II

-Quarter 4 Bell Work Sign-ups
-Announcements for the week
-AP Group:

  • Review of diagnostic quiz answers/reflection on the types of questions missed
  • Analysis of Prose Section
-Honors Group:
  • Discussion of Reading
  • Journal clarification
  • Blog Sources

-Read 21-26 for Wed.
-Pageant materials due Wed.
-Fri--AP Response to "The Man in the Black Suit" due

Thursday, April 4, 2013

Victorian Pageant

You are on a pageant team for either Blanche Ingram or Jane Eyre.  Your task is to prepare these women to complete in a number of competitions.  In addition to choosing attire and responses that are appropriate for the period (based on your homework reading and based on yesterday's class readings), you will need to make choices that are appropriate to your candidate's characterization (including class).  We actually will hold this pageant, so one person in each group will need to act as your character.  She will need to answer interview questions from the character's point-of-view, and she will act as a clothing model (you may print out pictures/draw them on chart paper...obviously, you will not wear them in actuality).

Pageant Agenda:
-Casual Wear
-Formal Wear
-Final Thoughts (Interviews)

-Victorian Fashion:
-1840s Fashion:
-Ladies Emporium:
-History of the Bathing Suit:
-Links to Etiquette and Clothing for Different Occasions:
-What Victorian Women Did:

...and many others, which you may search for yourself.

Magazines & Cultural Reflections (Now + Victorian Times)

-Bell Work (Ewer, Voice)
-Free Write: How can a magazine reflect a particular time + culture?
-Analysis I: Modern Magazine
-Analysis II: Victorian Magazines (see questions in previous post)

-Read Victorian Woman Packet
-AP Diagnostic Test + Honors Journals/Reading pushed back to Monday
-Reading 21-25 pushed to Wednesday
-AP Response to "The Man in the Black Suit" (next Friday)

Text Choices for Modernist Unit

F. Scott Fitzgerald--The Great Gatsby

William Faulkner--As I Lay Dying

Joseph Conrad--"Heart of Darkness"  (and other selections)

Virginia Woolf--Mrs. Dalloway

James Joyce--Dubliners

FM Ford-- The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion

EM Forster--Howard's End

Aldeous Huxley--Brave New World

Jean Rhys--The Wide Sargasso Sea

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Godey's Lady's Magazine v. 40 (1850) Link;seq=15;view=1up;num=iii

Reading Questions:

Click on different pages of the text, and skim some of the articles.
  • What generalizations can you make about Victorian culture based on Godey's?
  • What is featured in the section entitled "The Work Table"? What does this say about a middle-class Victorian woman's perception of "work"?  (I have this available as a separate handout because it is on multiple pages)

Read the Godey's entry "The Sphere of Woman" (Goethe) and examine its accompanying illustration.  (This article also is a part of the separate handout).
  • How does Goethe define the role of the Victorian woman?
  • How does he see the woman's role as having advantages over the man's role?
  • On what is the woman "dependent"?
  • How does the image complement the text?

Gothic Conventions Day II

-Bell Work (verbal irony, refectory, understatement, preternatural)
-Comma Use in Connecting Independent Clauses
-Jane Eyre Questions/Discussion of Gothic Elements
-Continuation of House on Haunted Hill 

-Bring a magazine tomorrow if you have one to share
-AP: Finish Practice Exam for Friday
-Honors: First Journal and set of Eyre Affair reading due Friday
-AP Response to "The Man in the Black Suit" due NEXT Friday

Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Extra Credit Directions

The following is the text of the letter regarding the extra credit assignment.

February 26, 2013

You may be aware that Green Mountain Power is holding a contest called the Vermont Writers' Prize.  Entries can be sent anytime before November 1st.  The theme is "Vermont--Its People, the Place, Its History or Its Values," and the prize is $1500.  The winning entry will be in VERMONT MAGAZINE in the March/April edition.  Entries can be essays, short stories, or poems and cannot exceed 1500 words.  Send to Vermont Writers' Prize c/o Green Mountain Power, 163 Acorn Lane, Colchester, VT, 05446.

Enclosed is my entry which deals with my hometown of Proctor.  I thought that some of your teachers or students might be interested (and perhaps submit their own entries).


Ray Pentkowski

(If you would like to see the sample entry, please get a paper copy of the contest details from class).

Gothic Conventions

-Discussion of most recent papers/extra credit
-Notes: The Gothic
-Identifying in Context: House on Haunted Hill

-Read through Chapter 20 of JE + Reading ?s
-AP Practice Exam for Friday (do one section per night--15 min each)
-Honors Project/1st Journal Due Fri
-EC due Fri
-AP Response on "The Man in the Black Suit" due next Friday

Friday, March 29, 2013

Groups Day 1

-Bell Work (Transition, Usurious)
-Vocab Quiz
-AP Group

  • Review Introduction
  • Read Ch 1
  • Review of AP Practice Exam
-Honors Group
  • Reading Assignments
  • Project Assignments
  • Group Reading/Planning Time

  • Read up to chapter 16 + Reading Questions
  • Revision due Wed

Thursday, March 28, 2013

Victorian Schooling & The Governess

-Victorian Childhood: Jane Discussion
-Reading Questions
-Victorian Culture: The School House Notes
-Considering JE as an autobiography:

-Read some of the correspondence between Bronte and Southey in Ch8
-AP Reading due tomorrow
-Response due tomorrow
-Revisions due Mon.
-You will be expected to have read through to chapter sixteen by Mon

Gaskell Chapter Link

Jane Eyre as autobiography?

Gaskell Writing--

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Rich v. Poor Victorian Children

-Bell Work (Third Person Limited Omniscient, Opprobrium, Third Person Omniscient, Ignominy)
-Victorian Improv
-Discussion of Jane's Role

-Response due Fri
-Revision due Mon
-Finish reading through Chapter 11 if you have not (along with the questions)
-Journal Question:  Do you believe that Jane has a horrible childhood as she seems to claim?  Does she in light of Victorian culture?  (Please complete a semi-free write paragraph in which you cite specific plot events/key quotes).

Monday, March 25, 2013

Victorian Childhood

-Bell Work (Thesis, Bilious)
-Finish JE Notes
-Discussion about reading:

  • Questions about reading questions
  • Critical examination of Victorian childhood
Consider: Would Victorian culture label Jane Eyre as an abused child?  In what ways was her childhood ideal/not ideal?

*Read chapters 6-11 + answer questions
*Response due Fri
*AP Introduction to AP Review Book (Thurs.)
*Revision due Mon

Friday, March 22, 2013

Intro to Jane Eyre

-Bell Work (Theme, Torpid)
-Vocab Quiz
-Finish Victorian Era Slide show
-Victorian Woman Game
-Introduction to JE

-Read and answer questions for chapters 1-5 of JE
-Response to Chekhov due Wed
-Revision of chosen paper or AP paper due next Fri

Thursday, March 21, 2013

College-Level Writing Workshop

-Bell Work (Syntax, Whitewash)
-Brainstorming Tips

  • Read the Ten Commandments of AP Writing
  • Free Write: What do you agree with?  What do you think was left out?
  • Consensus as a group
-Writing at a College Level (AP)
  • Read College Board Rubric for the sample prompt to which you responded
  • Translate each section into your own language
  • Read and grade samples using said rubric
  • Share the results as a group + Compare with the AP graders' opinions

-Writing at a College Level (Honors)
  • Read additional college writing tips
  • Add to your consensus sheet
  • Read and grade sample papers (Meaning/Development/Organization/Language/Conventions) out of 6
  • Share results and compare with teachers' grading

-Guiding Tips
  • Based on the previous tips create a top ten tips list with your group

-Vocab Quiz tomorrow
-Free Response (due Wed)
-Revision of AP Response or Free Response (due Fri)

Monday, March 18, 2013

Modern Sonnets

-Bell work (extenuate; synecdoche)
-Gallery Walk of Modern Sonnets
-Hand in papers and Othello text

-Finish packet if you did not finish in class
-Free response to Chekhov Reading (due next Mon)

Friday, March 15, 2013

Short Story for Response

The Darling
by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904)
Word Count: 5028

Olenka, the daughter of the retired collegiate assessor, Plemyanniakov, was sitting in her back porch, lost in thought. It was hot, the flies were persistent and teasing, and it was pleasant to reflect that it would soon be evening. Dark rainclouds were gathering from the east, and bringing from time to time a breath of moisture in the air.

Kukin, who was the manager of an open-air theatre called the Tivoli, and who lived in the lodge, was standing in the middle of the garden looking at the sky.

"Again!" he observed despairingly. "It's going to rain again! Rain every day, as though to spite me. I might as well hang myself! It's ruin! Fearful losses every day."

He flung up his hands, and went on, addressing Olenka:

"There! that's the life we lead, Olga Semyonovna. It's enough to make one cry. One works and does one's utmost, one wears oneself out, getting no sleep at night, and racks one's brain what to do for the best. And then what happens? To begin with, one's public is ignorant, boorish. I give them the very best operetta, a dainty masque, first rate music-hall artists. But do you suppose that's what they want! They don't understand anything of that sort. They want a clown; what they ask for is vulgarity. And then look at the weather! Almost every evening it rains. It started on the tenth of May, and it's kept it up all May and June. It's simply awful! The public doesn't come, but I've to pay the rent just the same, and pay the artists."

The next evening the clouds would gather again, and Kukin would say with an hysterical laugh:

"Well, rain away, then! Flood the garden, drown me! Damn my luck in this world and the next! Let the artists have me up! Send me to prison! -- to Siberia! -- the scaffold! Ha, ha, ha!"

And next day the same thing.

Olenka listened to Kukin with silent gravity, and sometimes tears came into her eyes. In the end his misfortunes touched her; she grew to love him. He was a small thin man, with a yellow face, and curls combed forward on his forehead. He spoke in a thin tenor; as he talked his mouth worked on one side, and there was always an expression of despair on his face; yet he aroused a deep and genuine affection in her. She was always fond of some one, and could not exist without loving. In earlier days she had loved her papa, who now sat in a darkened room, breathing with difficulty; she had loved her aunt who used to come every other year from Bryansk; and before that, when she was at school, she had loved her French master. She was a gentle, soft-hearted, compassionate girl, with mild, tender eyes and very good health. At the sight of her full rosy cheeks, her soft white neck with a little dark mole on it, and the kind, naïve smile, which came into her face when she listened to anything pleasant, men thought, "Yes, not half bad," and smiled too, while lady visitors could not refrain from seizing her hand in the middle of a conversation, exclaiming in a gush of delight, "You darling!"

The house in which she had lived from her birth upwards, and which was left her in her father's will, was at the extreme end of the town, not far from the Tivoli. In the evenings and at night she could head the band playing, and the crackling and banging of fireworks, and it seemed to her that it was Kukin struggling with his destiny, storming the entrenchments of his chief foe, the indifferent public; there was a sweet thrill at her heart, she had no desire to sleep, and when he returned home at day-break, she tapped softly at her bedroom window, and showing him only her face and one shoulder through the curtain, she gave him a friendly smile …

He proposed to her, and they were married. And when he had a closer view of her neck and her plump, fine shoulders, he threw up his hands, and said:

"You darling!"

He was happy, but as it rained on the day and night of his wedding, his face still retained an expression of despair.

They got on very well together. She used to sit in his office, to look after things in the Tivoli, to put down the accounts and pay the wages. And her rosy cheeks, her sweet, naïve, radiant smile, were to be seen now at the office window, now in the refreshment bar or behind the scenes of the theatre. And already she used to say to her acquaintances that the theatre was the chief and most important thing in life and that it was only through the drama that one could derive true enjoyment and become cultivated and humane.

"But do you suppose the public understands that?" she used to say. "What they want is a clown. Yesterday we gave 'Faust Inside Out,' and almost all the boxes were empty; but if Vanitchka and I had been producing some vulgar thing, I assure you the theatre would have been packed. Tomorrow Vanitchka and I are doing 'Orpheus in Hell.' Do come."

And what Kukin said about the theatre and the actors she repeated. Like him she despised the public for their ignorance and their indifference to art; she took part in the rehearsals, she corrected the actors, she kept an eye on the behaviour of the musicians, and when there was an unfavourable notice in the local paper, she shed tears, and then went to the editor's office to set things right.

The actors were fond of her and used to call her "Vanitchka and I," and "the darling"; she was sorry for them and used to lend them small sums of money, and if they deceived her, she used to shed a few tears in private, but did not complain to her husband.

They got on well in the winter too. They took the theatre in the town for the whole winter, and let it for short terms to a Little Russian company, or to a conjurer, or to a local dramatic society. Olenka grew stouter, and was always beaming with satisfaction, while Kukin grew thinner and yellower, and continually complained of their terrible losses, although he had not done badly all the winter. He used to cough at night, and she used to give him hot raspberry tea or lime-flower water, to rub him with eau-de-Cologne and to wrap him in her warm shawls.

"You're such a sweet pet!" she used to say with perfect sincerity, stroking his hair. "You're such a pretty dear!"

Towards Lent he went to Moscow to collect a new troupe, and without him she could not sleep, but sat all night at her window, looking at the stars, and she compared herself with the hens, who are awake all night and uneasy when the cock is not in the hen-house. Kukin was detained in Moscow, and wrote that he would be back at Easter, adding some instructions about the Tivoli. But on the Sunday before Easter, late in the evening, came a sudden ominous knock at the gate; some one was hammering on the gate as though on a barrel -- boom, boom, boom! The drowsy cook went flopping with her bare feet through the puddles, as she ran to open the gate.

"Please open," said some one outside in a thick bass. "There is a telegram for you."

Olenka had received telegrams from her husband before, but this time for some reason she felt numb with terror. With shaking hands she opened the telegram and read as follows:


That was how it was written in the telegram -- "fufuneral," and the utterly incomprehensible word "immate." It was signed by the stage manager of the operatic company.

"My darling!" sobbed Olenka. "Vanka, my precious, my darling! Why did I ever meet you! Why did I know you and love you! Your poor heart-broken Olenka is alone without you!"

Kukin's funeral took place on Tuesday in Moscow, Olenka returned home on Wednesday, and as soon as she got indoors, she threw herself on her bed and sobbed so loudly that it could be heard next door, and in the street.

"Poor darling!" the neighbours said, as they crossed themselves. "Olga Semyonovna, poor darling! How she does take on!"

Three months later Olenka was coming home from mass, melancholy and in deep mourning. It happened that one of her neighbours, Vassily Andreitch Pustovalov, returning home from church, walked back beside her. He was the manager at Babakayev's, the timber merchant's. He wore a straw hat, a white waistcoat, and a gold watch-chain, and looked more a country gentleman than a man in trade.

"Everything happens as it is ordained, Olga Semyonovna," he said gravely, with a sympathetic note in his voice; "and if any of our dear ones die, it must be because it is the will of God, so we ought have fortitude and bear it submissively."

After seeing Olenka to her gate, he said good-bye and went on. All day afterwards she heard his sedately dignified voice, and whenever she shut her eyes she saw his dark beard. She liked him very much. And apparently she had made an impression on him too, for not long afterwards an elderly lady, with whom she was only slightly acquainted, came to drink coffee with her, and as soon as she was seated at table began to talk about Pustovalov, saying that he was an excellent man whom one could thoroughly depend upon, and that any girl would be glad to marry him. Three days later Pustovalov came himself. He did not stay long, only about ten minutes, and he did not say much, but when he left, Olenka loved him -- loved him so much that she lay awake all night in a perfect fever, and in the morning she sent for the elderly lady. The match was quickly arranged, and then came the wedding.

Pustovalov and Olenka got on very well together when they were married.

Usually he sat in the office till dinner-time, then he went out on business, while Olenka took his place, and sat in the office till evening, making up accounts and booking orders.

"Timber gets dearer every year; the price rises twenty per cent," she would say to her customers and friends. "Only fancy we used to sell local timber, and now Vassitchka always has to go for wood to the Mogilev district. And the freight!" she would add, covering her cheeks with her hands in horror. "The freight!"

It seemed to her that she had been in the timber trade for ages and ages, and that the most important and necessary thing in life was timber; and there was something intimate and touching to her in the very sound of words such as "baulk," "post," "beam," "pole," "scantling," "batten," "lath," "plank," etc.

At night when she was asleep she dreamed of perfect mountains of planks and boards, and long strings of wagons, carting timber somewhere far away. She dreamed that a whole regiment of six-inch beams forty feet high, standing on end, was marching upon the timber-yard; that logs, beams, and boards knocked together with the resounding crash of dry wood, kept falling and getting up again, piling themselves on each other. Olenka cried out in her sleep, and Pustovalov said to her tenderly: "Olenka, what's the matter, darling? Cross yourself!"

Her husband's ideas were hers. If he thought the room was too hot, or that business was slack, she thought the same. Her husband did not care for entertainments, and on holidays he stayed at home. She did likewise.

"You are always at home or in the office," her friends said to her. "You should go to the theatre, darling, or to the circus."

"Vassitchka and I have no time to go to theatres," she would answer sedately. "We have no time for nonsense. What's the use of these theatres?"

On Saturdays Pustovalov and she used to go to the evening service; on holidays to early mass, and they walked side by side with softened faces as they came home from church. There was a pleasant fragrance about them both, and her silk dress rustled agreeably. At home they drank tea, with fancy bread and jams of various kinds, and afterwards they ate pie. Every day at twelve o'clock there was a savoury smell of beet-root soup and of mutton or duck in their yard, and on fast-days of fish, and no one could pass the gate without feeling hungry. In the office the samovar was always boiling, and customers were regaled with tea and cracknels. Once a week the couple went to the baths and returned side by side, both red in the face.

"Yes, we have nothing to complain of, thank God," Olenka used to say to her acquaintances. "I wish every one were as well off as Vassitchka and I."

When Pustovalov went away to buy wood in the Mogilev district, she missed him dreadfully, lay awake and cried. A young veterinary surgeon in the army, called Smirnin, to whom they had let their lodge, used sometimes to come in in the evening. He used to talk to her and play cards with her, and this entertained her in her husband's absence. She was particularly interested in what he told her of his home life. He was married and had a little boy, but was separated from his wife because she had been unfaithful to him, and now he hated her and used to send her forty roubles a month for the maintenance of their son. And hearing of all this, Olenka sighed and shook her head. She was sorry for him.

"Well, God keep you," she used to say to him at parting, as she lighted him down the stairs with a candle. "Thank you for coming to cheer me up, and may the Mother of God give you health."

And she always expressed herself with the same sedateness and dignity, the same reasonableness, in imitation of her husband. As the veterinary surgeon was disappearing behind the door below, she would say:

"You know, Vladimir Platonitch, you'd better make it up with your wife. You should forgive her for the sake of your son. You may be sure the little fellow understands."

And when Pustovalov came back, she told him in a low voice about the veterinary surgeon and his unhappy home life, and both sighed and shook their heads and talked about the boy, who, no doubt, missed his father, and by some strange connection of ideas, they went up to the holy ikons, bowed to the ground before them and prayed that God would give them children.

And so the Pustovalovs lived for six years quietly and peaceably in love and complete harmony.

But behold! one winter day after drinking hot tea in the office, Vassily Andreitch went out into the yard without his cap on to see about sending off some timber, caught cold and was taken ill. He had the best doctors, but he grew worse and died after four months' illness. And Olenka was a widow once more.

"I've nobody, now you've left me, my darling," she sobbed, after her husband's funeral. "How can I live without you, in wretchedness and misery! Pity me, good people, all alone in the world!"

She went about dressed in black with long "weepers," and gave up wearing hat and gloves for good. She hardly ever went out, except to church, or to her husband's grave, and led the life of a nun. It was not till six months later that she took off the weepers and opened the shutters of the windows. She was sometimes seen in the mornings, going with her cook to market for provisions, but what went on in her house and how she lived now could only be surmised. People guessed, from seeing her drinking tea in her garden with the veterinary surgeon, who read the newspaper aloud to her, and from the fact that, meeting a lady she knew at the post-office, she said to her:

"There is no proper veterinary inspection in our town, and that's the cause of all sorts of epidemics. One is always hearing of people's getting infection from the milk supply, or catching diseases from horses and cows. The health of domestic animals ought to be as well cared for as the health of human beings."

She repeated the veterinary surgeon's words, and was of the same opinion as he about everything. It was evident that she could not live a year without some attachment, and had found new happiness in the lodge. In any one else this would have been censured, but no one could think ill of Olenka; everything she did was so natural. Neither she nor the veterinary surgeon said anything to other people of the change in their relations, and tried, indeed, to conceal it, but without success, for Olenka could not keep a secret. When he had visitors, men serving in his regiment, and she poured out tea or served the supper, she would begin talking of the cattle plague, of the foot and mouth disease, and of the municipal slaughterhouses. He was dreadfully embarrassed, and when the guests had gone, he would seize her by the hand and hiss angrily:

"I've asked you before not to talk about what you don't understand. When we veterinary surgeons are talking among ourselves, please don't put your word in. It's really annoying."

And she would look at him with astonishment and dismay, and ask him in alarm: "But, Voloditchka, what am I to talk about?"

And with tears in her eyes she would embrace him, begging him not to be angry, and they were both happy.

But this happiness did not last long. The veterinary surgeon departed, departed for ever with his regiment, when it was transferred to a distant place -- to Siberia, it may be. And Olenka was left alone.

Now she was absolutely alone. Her father had long been dead, and his armchair lay in the attic, covered with dust and lame of one leg. She got thinner and plainer, and when people met her in the street they did not look at her as they used to, and did not smile to her; evidently her best years were over and left behind, and now a new sort of life had begun for her, which did not bear thinking about. In the evening Olenka sat in the porch, and heard the band playing and the fireworks popping in the Tivoli, but now the sound stirred no response. She looked into her yard without interest, thought of nothing, wished for nothing, and afterwards, when night came on she went to bed and dreamed of her empty yard. She ate and drank as it were unwillingly.

And what was worst of all, she had no opinions of any sort. She saw the objects about her and understood what she saw, but could not form any opinion about them, and did not know what to talk about. And how awful it is not to have any opinions! One sees a bottle, for instance, or the rain, or a peasant driving in his cart, but what the bottle is for, or the rain, or the peasant, and what is the meaning of it, one can't say, and could not even for a thousand roubles. When she had Kukin, or Pustovalov, or the veterinary surgeon, Olenka could explain everything, and give her opinion about anything you like, but now there was the same emptiness in her brain and in her heart as there was in her yard outside. And it was as harsh and as bitter as wormwood in the mouth.

Little by little the town grew in all directions. The road became a street, and where the Tivoli and the timber-yard had been, there were new turnings and houses. How rapidly time passes! Olenka's house grew dingy, the roof got rusty, the shed sank on one side, and the whole yard was overgrown with docks and stinging-nettles. Olenka herself had grown plain and elderly; in summer she sat in the porch, and her soul, as before, was empty and dreary and full of bitterness. In winter she sat at her window and looked at the snow. When she caught the scent of spring, or heard the chime of the church bells, a sudden rush of memories from the past came over her, there was a tender ache in her heart, and her eyes brimmed over with tears; but this was only for a minute, and then came emptiness again and the sense of the futility of life. The black kitten, Briska, rubbed against her and purred softly, but Olenka was not touched by these feline caresses. That was not what she needed. She wanted a love that would absorb her whole being, her whole soul and reason -- that would give her ideas and an object in life, and would warm her old blood. And she would shake the kitten off her skirt and say with vexation:

"Get along; I don't want you!"

And so it was, day after day and year after year, and no joy, and no opinions. Whatever Mavra, the cook, said she accepted.

One hot July day, towards evening, just as the cattle were being driven away, and the whole yard was full of dust, some one suddenly knocked at the gate. Olenka went to open it herself and was dumbfounded when she looked out: she saw Smirnin, the veterinary surgeon, grey-headed, and dressed as a civilian. She suddenly remembered everything. She could not help crying and letting her head fall on his breast without uttering a word, and in the violence of her feeling she did not notice how they both walked into the house and sat down to tea.

"My dear Vladimir Platonitch! What fate has brought you?" she muttered, trembling with joy.

"I want to settle here for good, Olga Semyonovna," he told her. "I have resigned my post, and have come to settle down and try my luck on my own account. Besides, it's time for my boy to go to school. He's a big boy. I am reconciled with my wife, you know."

"Where is she?' asked Olenka.

"She's at the hotel with the boy, and I'm looking for lodgings."

"Good gracious, my dear soul! Lodgings? Why not have my house? Why shouldn't that suit you? Why, my goodness, I wouldn't take any rent!" cried Olenka in a flutter, beginning to cry again. "You live here, and the lodge will do nicely for me. Oh dear! how glad I am!"

Next day the roof was painted and the walls were whitewashed, and Olenka, with her arms akimbo walked about the yard giving directions. Her face was beaming with her old smile, and she was brisk and alert as though she had waked from a long sleep. The veterinary's wife arrived -- a thin, plain lady, with short hair and a peevish expression. With her was her little Sasha, a boy of ten, small for his age, blue-eyed, chubby, with dimples in his cheeks. And scarcely had the boy walked into the yard when he ran after the cat, and at once there was the sound of his gay, joyous laugh.

"Is that your puss, auntie?" he asked Olenka. "When she has little ones, do give us a kitten. Mamma is awfully afraid of mice."

Olenka talked to him, and gave him tea. Her heart warmed and there was a sweet ache in her bosom, as though the boy had been her own child. And when he sat at the table in the evening, going over his lessons, she looked at him with deep tenderness and pity as she murmured to herself:

"You pretty pet! ... my precious! ... Such a fair little thing, and so clever."

" 'An island is a piece of land which is entirely surrounded by water,' " he read aloud.

"An island is a piece of land," she repeated, and this was the first opinion to which she gave utterance with positive conviction after so many years of silence and dearth of ideas.

Now she had opinions of her own, and at supper she talked to Sasha's parents, saying how difficult the lessons were at the high schools, but that yet the high school was better than a commercial one, since with a high-school education all careers were open to one, such as being a doctor or an engineer.

Sasha began going to the high school. His mother departed to Harkov to her sister's and did not return; his father used to go off every day to inspect cattle, and would often be away from home for three days together, and it seemed to Olenka as though Sasha was entirely abandoned, that he was not wanted at home, that he was being starved, and she carried him off to her lodge and gave him a little room there.

And for six months Sasha had lived in the lodge with her. Every morning Olenka came into his bedroom and found him fast asleep, sleeping noiselessly with his hand under his cheek. She was sorry to wake him.

"Sashenka," she would say mournfully, "get up, darling. It's time for school."

He would get up, dress and say his prayers, and then sit down to breakfast, drink three glasses of tea, and eat two large cracknels and a half a buttered roll. All this time he was hardly awake and a little ill-humoured in consequence.

"You don't quite know your fable, Sashenka," Olenka would say, looking at him as though he were about to set off on a long journey. "What a lot of trouble I have with you! You must work and do your best, darling, and obey your teachers."

"Oh, do leave me alone!" Sasha would say.

Then he would go down the street to school, a little figure, wearing a big cap and carrying a satchel on his shoulder. Olenka would follow him noiselessly.

"Sashenka!" she would call after him, and she would pop into his hand a date or a caramel. When he reached the street where the school was, he would feel ashamed of being followed by a tall, stout woman, he would turn round and say:

"You'd better go home, auntie. I can go the rest of the way alone."

She would stand still and look after him fixedly till he had disappeared at the school-gate.

Ah, how she loved him! Of her former attachments not one had been so deep; never had her soul surrendered to any feeling so spontaneously, so disinterestedly, and so joyously as now that her maternal instincts were aroused. For this little boy with the dimple in his cheek and the big school cap, she would have given her whole life, she would have given it with joy and tears of tenderness. Why? Who can tell why?

When she had seen the last of Sasha, she returned home, contented and serene, brimming over with love; her face, which had grown younger during the last six months, smiled and beamed; people meeting her looked at her with pleasure.

"Good-morning, Olga Semyonovna, darling. How are you, darling?"

"The lessons at the high school are very difficult now," she would relate at the market. "It's too much; in the first class yesterday they gave him a fable to learn by heart, and a Latin translation and a problem. You know it's too much for a little chap."

And she would begin talking about the teachers, the lessons, and the school books, saying just what Sasha said.

At three o'clock they had dinner together: in the evening they learned their lessons together and cried. When she put him to bed, she would stay a long time making the Cross over him and murmuring a prayer; then she would go to bed and dream of that far-away misty future when Sasha would finish his studies and become a doctor or an engineer, would have a big house of his own with horses and a carriage, would get married and have children ... She would fall asleep still thinking of the same thing, and tears would run down her cheeks from her closed eyes, while the black cat lay purring beside her: "Mrr, mrr, mrr."

Suddenly there would come a loud knock at the gate.

Olenka would wake up breathless with alarm, her heart throbbing. Half a minute later would come another knock.

"It must be a telegram from Harkov," she would think, beginning to tremble from head to foot. "Sasha's mother is sending for him from Harkov ... Oh, mercy on us!"

She was in despair. Her head, her hands, and her feet would turn chill, and she would feel that she was the most unhappy woman in the world. But another minute would pass, voices would be heard: it would turn out to be the veterinary surgeon coming home from the club.

"Well, thank God!" she would think.

And gradually the load in her heart would pass off, and she would feel at ease. She would go back to bed thinking of Sasha, who lay sound asleep in the next room, sometimes crying out in his sleep:

"I'll give it you! Get away! Shut up!"

Taken from: